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, palm tree
, Musa sapientum
, Pokok Pisang
, Banaan fruit
Banana is the common name used for herbaceous, cultigenic plants in the genus Musa,
which, because of their size and structure, are often mistaken for trees.
Bananas are green when they are picked, yellow when they are ripe,
and brown or black when they rot. Bananas are cultivated for their fruit which bear the same name,
and to a lesser extent for the production of fibre and as ornamental plants.
Bananas are of the family Musaceae. Globally, bananas rank fourth after rice,
wheat and maize in human consumption they are grown in 130 countries worldwide,
more than any other fruit crop. Bananas are native to tropical southeastern Asia
but are widely cultivated in tropical regions. In popular culture and commerce,
banana usually refers to the soft, sweet dessert bananas that are usually eaten raw.
The bananas from a group of cultivars with firmer, starchier fruit are generally used in cooking rather than eaten raw.
Bananas may also be dried and ground into banana flour. The main or upright growth is called a pseudostem, which when mature,
will obtain a height of 2–8 m varies between different cultivars, with leaves of up to 3.5 m in length.
Each pseudostem produces a single bunch of bananas, before dying and being replaced by a new pseudostem.
The base of the plant is a rhizome known as a corm. Corms are perennial, with a productive lifespan of 15 years or more.
The term banana is applied to both the plant and its elongated fruit technically a false berry which grow in hanging clusters,
with up to 20 fruit to a tier called a hand, and 3-20 tiers to a bunch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch,
or commercially as a banana stem, and can weigh from 30–50 kg. The fruit averages 125 g,
of which approximately 75 is water and 25 dry matter content. Bananas are a valuable source of Vitamin A,
Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, and potassium. Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hard seeds,
virtually all culinary bananas have seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas meaning they are yellow
and fully ripe when eaten or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types however,
only about 10-15 of all production is for export, with the U.S. and EU being the dominant buyers.